Assembly Multiply Without Mul

Given two integers, write a function to multiply them without using multiplication operator. Compiler tricks in x86 assembly, part 2 A common operation in many C programs is a division by a constant quantity. Related Articles and Code: Write a shell program to add, subtract and multiply the 2 given numbers passed as command line arguments; Shell Script to find out the sum of the given numbers using command line argument. Although an 8x8, 16x16, or 32x32 multiply is usually sufficient, there are times when you may want to multiply larger values together. IMUL Examples The following fragment computes 8-bit signed multiplication (48 × 4):. A good resource for those new to ARM assembly. For our example, if you have 75 drippers (1 per plant), multiply 75 by the GPH of the dripper (1 GPH) and your total GPH flow rate is 75 GPH. FMA-type instructions being the only exception, but their semantics are typically well documented. There are many mental strategies for multiplication, but the mental multiplication strategies covered here can be applied to multiply any set of numbers. The MUL instruction sets the Carry flag if the upper half of the product is not equal to zero. ARM multiply instructions This section contains the following subsections: MUL and MLA Multiply and multiply-accumulate (32-bit by 32-bit, bottom 32-bit result). 78,925 mips assembly program matrix multiplication jobs found, and then help create an assembly language program to MUL two 32-bit numbers to make a 64-bit answer within the Verilog environment to prove out the initial system. Assembly synthesis refers to a pro-cess of decomposing an overall product into mul-tiple components. 286 added an imul dest(reg), src(reg/mem), immediate form, and 386 added an imul r32, r/m32 form, both of which which only compute the lower half of the result. 8051 MicroController Assembly Code to Implement Multiplication of two Numbers using Addition Instructions. The multiplier can handle both signed and unsigned integer and fractional numbers without speed or code size penalty. Again, you can only use multiply and divide. So MUL is faster if you need to multiply by more than about 3 or 4. ARM multiply instructions This section contains the following subsections: MUL and MLA Multiply and multiply-accumulate (32-bit by 32-bit, bottom 32-bit result). Without using the MUL instruction, give instructions that multiply register r4 by : a) 135 b) 255 c) 18 d) 16,384 and place your result in register r0. multiply-add (FMA). square_unsigned: mul r0,r0,r0 mov pc,lr Your examples use soft-float-abi then floating point data transfered in integer registers. ARM programmer model. Having the multiplication SSE'd could help gain some more performance (I leave. We will call numbers which are easy to multiply by nice numbers. In MIPS, we multiply registers, so: " 32-bit value x 32-bit value = 64-bit value ! Syntax of Multiplication (signed): " mult register1, register2 " Multiplies 32-bit values in those registers & puts 64-bit product in special result regs: ! puts product upper half in hi, lower half in lo. Multiply, Unsigned. If matrix1 is a n x m matrix and matrix2 is a m x l matrix. Sample Code. d as six integers for the fields 6,5,5,5,5,6 bits. ) multiply a by 3. · Using MUL instruction, multiply the contents of two registers. The mul 64 full multiplication command is 2 mops on Intel processors, but with a delay of only 3 cycles, as in imul r64,r64, which gives only a 64-bit result. These simply involve an add or a subtract and a shift. Write a program in assembly language to sort array elements in ascending order. (Link from the x86 tag wiki). The z80 multiply (without a hardware instruction) is implemented with an unrolled equivalent to the z80n mul de , which is designed to have no side effect other than resetting the flag register. This post is a continuation of my Getting Deep Into Series started in an effort to provide a deeper understanding of the internal workings and other cool stuff about Ethereum and blockchain in general which you will not find easily on the web. Now load the result value from AX to memory. Assembly instructions are written one per line. a 32x32b => 64b full multiply (or 64x64b => 128b). For an additional 0. , are introduced in the second chapter without discussing what happens when the call is made. This is not accounted for in the C language specification. Fast code, fast. 8051 16 Bit Multiplication ALP ALGORITHM: Start. Nice part is this gives you a 32 bit result identical to what a MUL would in the same registers. inc from the kip irvine website and make sure to follow the tutorial if your a begginer - Multiplying And Dividing Assembly. syntax unified. Looking through the lists of instructions, it becomes clear that multiplication and division operations are not provided in SPARC: at least not in a form that most programmers are familiar with. Note that labels are a low-level feature and it is possible to write efficient assembly without labels, just using assembly functions, loops, if and switch instructions (see below). 3 views; Web Traffic. Multiply Unsigned multiply Multiply registers rs and rt. Move the multiplicand to accumulator. Then multiplying by M gives correct N/D in the high bits for all N < M. Therefore, we will confine our discussions to Intel 8086/8088 assembly language. I went nuts over-commenting. Below is the ARM assembly code that multiply two matrices:. So far we have seen how to move data between memory and processor registers, and how to do arithmetic in the registers. We are taking two number FFH and FFH at location 20H and 21H, After multiplying the result will be stored at location 30H and 31H. Assembly implementations of mpn_mul_basecase are essentially the same as the generic C code, but have all the usual assembly tricks and obscurities introduced for speed. If the bits of B are b_0, b_1, b_2b_(n-1), so that:. Computer Organization & Assembly Languages Pu-Jen Cheng Floating-Point Processing Adapted from the slides prepared by Kip Irvine for the book, Assembly Language for Intel-Based Computers, 5th Ed. If you multiply two bytes, the result will be contained in AX, because multiplication of two 8-bit numbers can result in a 16-bit number. rodata resstring:. The result of the multiplication may exceed the 8-bit size. For each instruction argument, there is a name in the assembly format. Labels are ways to call parts of a routine without calculations or repeating things over and over. NOTE FOR BEGINNERS LIKE ME: bit shift will only multiply by two, so if you need to multiply by something else, use mul or imul. In this paper, we provide a detailed description of the PHiPAC V1. Accept the numbers from the user. Usually, vN represents input register and oXXX represents output register in the assembly vertex shader. asm file is given below after the code. So the task is too simple. Multiply a positive fraction by a negative number. Explore a preview version of Assembly Language Step-by-Step: Programming with Linux®, Third Edition right now. The shader body does two things: it performs a matrix multiply and returns a float4 result. Bandwidth abuse increases hosting cost forcing sponsorship or shutdown. You might be horrified about the potential security issue. These simply involve an add or a subtract and a shift. Next, count the number of digits after the decimal in each factor. It will be worth mentioning here that UNIX mostly is written in C but has about 5-10% machine dependent assembly code. 2 Assembler Manual. Now, Developer B (DevB) and Developer C (DevC) also need same functionality. After that, it performs: x = (((x - edx) >> 1) + edx) >> 2. The mul 64 full multiplication command is 2 mops on Intel processors, but with a delay of only 3 cycles, as in imul r64,r64, which gives only a 64-bit result. An assembly language is almost exactly like the machine code that a computer can understand, except that it uses words in place of numbers. r/m16 x AX -> DX:AX. The result of the multiplication may exceed the 8-bit size. Multiplication • Unsigned multiplication: MUL operand • Signed multiplication: IMUL operand • If operand is a Byte - MUL operand; AX AL * operand • If operand is a Word - MUL operand; DX:AX AX * operand • Operand can be a general register or memory. Any line of assembly code beginning with an "*" (asterix) will act as a breakpoint causing the simulator to halt prior to the execution of the instruction following the mark, or after marked data is accessed via either a load or store instruction. But I didn't have much contact with anybody else doing 6502 programming. Home Documentation ddi0596 a - Arm® A64 Instruction Set Architecture: Armv8, for Armv8-A architecture profile A64 -- SIMD and Floating-point Instructions (alphabetic order) ADDP (scalar): Add Pair of elements (scalar). [email protected] Alright, I think I get it now. BUY THE MICROCONTROLLER:. But those processors didn't have a MUL instruction so when it came to non-power of 2 multiplication, it always involved shifting, testing bit and adding shifted result if bit is set, exactly like we do. Mostly they do, but sometimes a car goes by without paying. After that, it performs: x = (((x - edx) >> 1) + edx) >> 2. If you take a quick look at the timing for the multiply instruction, you'll notice that the execution time for this instruction is rather long. Of course, the conversions could be accomplished with addition and subtraction, but in this application the bit-wise logical operators are more natural. Written by Luka Kerr on April 2, 2018 I’ve been learning MIPS assembly for about 2 weeks now at uni and wanted to share how i’ve implemented a simple matrix multiplication function in MIPS. global main. Jump to: navigation, search File:ARM Cortex-M0 and M3 ICs in SMD Packages. Okay, back to the result size problem. LD -> any : 1 stall. You give it a new name and specify its type. We need to set up a few labels. REG stands for Registers (Eg. UMULL, UMLAL, SMULL and SMLAL Unsigned and signed long multiply and multiply accumulate (32-bit by 32-bit, 64-bit accumulate or result). Write a Program to Multiply Two 16 Bit Numbers in Assembly language. This guide describes the basics of 32-bit x86 assembly language programming, covering a small but useful subset of the available instructions and assembler directives. Here I am going to show you how we can do Multiplication without using Multiply Operator *. I would like to know if there is a way to perform any multiplication or division without use of MUL or DIV instruction because they require a lot of CPU cycles. Fast code, fast. So if you only want to add a percentage single behind the number, you can do the following steps:. Also, use of power function from any programming language library is not allowed. Arduino Forum > Using Arduino > two cycles but in commands like LD rd,X+ it seems to increment pair register X in about no time since the same command without incremention takes about the same time. 64 MUL Multiply with signed or unsigned 32-bit operands, giving the least significant 32 bits of the result. So the task is too simple. d instruction in hex. Multiplying (and dividing) by powers of 2 has always been trivial and fast even for 8-bit processors like Z80 or 6502, with shifting instructions (commonly arithmetic shift left aka ASL). I know that shl instruction is like the mul operation and the shr instruction is like the div operation and it's used for optimization. Programs like this you will rarely get anywhere else. put "under the hood". MUL X0, X1, X2 // X0 = X1 * X2. the MIPS assembly language has very few instructions that support constants, so to do what you want you have to put the constant into a register and multiply by that. It can really be viewed as 5 + 5 + 5 + 5. , byte or word). From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core. The warp tile must have dimensions that are multiples of matrix multiply-accumulate shapes defined by the nvcuda::wmma templates for the target CUDA Compute Capability. The shader body does two things: it performs a matrix multiply and returns a float4 result. Arduino Forum > Using Arduino > two cycles but in commands like LD rd,X+ it seems to increment pair register X in about no time since the same command without incremention takes about the same time. Divide the 64-bit values into two 32-bit words and multiply the lower words by the lowest and second lower word of the result, then both pairs of low and high words from different numbers (they go to the second and third lower word of the result) and finally, both high words in the 2 highest words of the result. – eg AREA fred,code – You can go back to a previous area by using an old name. add, shift, sub and, or, etc. 8086 assembly program for addition of. stack 100h. Performs an unsigned multiplication of two operands. asm; Hello World Program - asmtutor. Multiply and Divide ! There are 2 classes of multiply - producing 32-bit and 64-bit results ! 32-bit versions on an ARM7TDMI will execute in 2 - 5 cycles ! MUL r0, r1, r2 ; r0 = r1 * r2! MLA r0, r1, r2, r3 ; r0 = (r1 * r2) + r3 ! 64-bit multiply instructions offer both signed and unsigned versions !. Register names 3. Multiply (without overflow) Multiply (with overflow) div rs, rt 0 rs rt 0 0x1a 6 5 5 10 6. A program consists of a sequence of assembly language statements. You will use the x86 single operand MUL and IMUL instructions for extended precision multiplication. MUL EXAMPLES Mov al, 5h Mov bl, 10h Mul bl ; AX = 0050h, CF = 0 No overflow - the Carry flag is 0 because the upper half of AX is zero 7. Program to Multiply Two 8 Bit Numbers. A load/store architecture – Data processing instructions act only on registers • Three operand format • Combined ALU and shifter for high speed bit manipulation – Specific memory access instructions with powerful auto ‐ indexing addressing modes. d as six integers for the fields 6,5,5,5,5,6 bits. A comprehensive database of more than 26 multiple choice questions quizzes online, test your knowledge with multiple choice questions quiz questions. Multiply packed single-precision floating-point values from xmm3/m128/m32bcst to xmm2 and store result in xmm1. For clarifications and suggestion comment in the comment section ; 8051 ASSEMBLY CODE -- CODESEXPLORER BLOG; IMPLEMENTATION OF MULTIPLICATION USING ADDITION; BELOW CODE […]. def create_multiplication_function(constant): return lambda n: n * constant This is indeed a contrived example, but qualifies as JIT. Ask Question Viewed 1k times 0. (Link from the x86 tag wiki). 32-bit signed integer math routines. MUL r/m8 MUL r/m8* MUL r/m16 MUL r/m32 MUL r/m64 r/mXX means register or memory: so immediates (immXX) like mul 2 are not allowed in any of the forms: the processor simply does not support that operation. Directives 4. These instructions support signed or unsigned values. Multiplying (and dividing) by powers of 2 has always been trivial and fast even for 8-bit processors like Z80 or 6502, with shifting instructions (commonly arithmetic shift left aka ASL). Cannot be a constant. But those processors didn't have a MUL instruction so when it came to non-power of 2 multiplication, it always involved shifting, testing bit and adding shifted result if bit is set, exactly like we do. add, subtract, multiply, divide, round, sqrt, bin2dec, dec2bin. neg Rdest, Rsrc Negate Value (with overflow) negu Rdest, Rsrc Negate Value (without overflow) nor Rdest, Rsrc1, Src2 NOR not Rdest, Rsrc NOT y. An assembly language is almost exactly like the machine code that a computer can understand, except that it uses words in place of numbers. req r4 @ use of i, j and k as loop indices is historic :-) jcount. Now it should implement certain logic to both numbers to find the result. Title: Intel Assembler CodeTable 80x86 - Overview of instructions Author: Roger Jegerlehner Subject: Programming Language Created Date: 9/22/2003 10:26:04 PM. In the event that you investigate the planning for the duplicate direction, you'll see that the execution time for this View the full answer. Technically this sample will look like: MOV AX, 128; MOV BX, 156; MUL BX. GCC low-level IR and basic code generation This is part three of a series “ Writing a GCC back end ”. Problem - Write a program in 8086 microprocessor to multiply two 8-bit numbers, where numbers are stored from offset 500 and store the result into offset 600. data a db 09H b db 02H. Although may not be desirable from structural point of view, assembly synthesis is often inevitable since production of an entire prod-uct without decomposition is technically or eco-nomically infeasible. MUL and MLA Multiply and multiply-accumulate (32-bit by 32-bit, bottom 32-bit result). Sample Code 8086: To Display 3 Digits Or Numbers With Using Mul And Div Commands. BUY THE MICROCONTROLLER:. Again, you can only use multiply and divide. This includes any use of the multiply [f]mul[s[u]] instructions, which return their result in r1:r0. 008 20 * Multiply 009 - 01045 0 rcl 0Register 0 to stack 011 1 1 Enter 1 012 1 1 Make it 11 013 30 - Subtract 014 10 / Divide 015 - 01643 32 g RtnReturn to calculator mode [Paul99] •Calculator mode –codes (m/clang. These work on the bits of their operators. I need a program when given an input. In Listing 12. There are two forms of the multiply instruction: an unsigned multiplication (mul) and a signed multiplication (imul). Joined: May 3, 2012 Messages: 1 Likes Received: 0 Trophy Points: 0. 8051 16 Bit Multiplication ALP ALGORITHM: Start. An assembly language is a programming language that can be used to directly tell the computer what to do. The ARM Cortex-M family are ARM microprocessor cores which are designed for use in microcontrollers, ASICs, ASSPs, FPGAs, and SoCs. The first exercise I have set myself is to try and get the basic HDD info from the first (80h) HDD in the machine. lea aka "load effective address" is mostly used as a "fancy add", with up to 3 components (one constant) and a scale. MUL instruction can use 1 byte 2 byte or 4 byte register/memloc multiplying 1 byte MUL CL ; put into AX = CL * AL goes into. Now two steps are performed at once: multiplication by 256 and adding the result to the previous result. · The multiplication of two 8 bit numbers may result into a 16 bit number. your captcha sucks. Syntax MUL{S}{cond} {Rd}, Rn, Rm where: cond is an optional condition code. For an additional 0. The following example illustrates use of real matrix multiplication for the type Float: with Ada. Intel and AMD x86 microprocessors. Table 7-2 shows the default mul-tiplicand and product, depending on the size of the multiplier. You use aam only after executing a mul instruction between two BCD digits (unpacked). FPMUL -> ST : 4 stalls. The result of the product should also be printed at the console of PCSPIM. To multiply we use the mul module described above. Figure P2 assumes that these experienced programmers are novices to the Internet, and so, recommends they read chapter 5 to introduce the basic techniques for. 16-bit multiplication is the multiplication of two 16-bit value from another. asm; Hello World Program - asmtutor. Take for example 5 x 4. We use the hardware multiply (MUL) command to create all four cross products and add them to the 32-bit result. The device budget on desktop chips is huge, so the space needed for multiply does not matter. REG stands for Registers (Eg. Explanation - MOV is used to load and store data. · Using MUL instruction, multiply the contents of two registers. The good old 6502. In this case we use the dl register, i. pl, __ecp_nistz256_sqr_montq, under "Now the reduction" there are a. These four registers are all located in register Bank 0, having the following names and addresses: MUL_X (Bank 0 E8h) MUL_Y (Bank 0 E9h) MUL_DH (Bank 0 EAh) MUL_DL (Bank 0 EBh) MUL_X and MUL_Y are write only registers where signed, 2’s-complement 8-bit values are input to the multiplier. The high-order byte of the product is returned in the B register. 1, 8, 23 Identify the sizes of the sign, exponent , and significand for a Single Precision x86 floating point number. Below Code is Complied and Verified in Keil uVision 3. Problem Statement. Discussion. Multiply a positive fraction by a negative number. cpu cortex-m3. ARMv8 Instruction Set Overview form by any means without the express prior written permission of ARM. GCC low-level IR and basic code generation This is part three of a series “ Writing a GCC back end ”. There can be at most one memory operand per instruction. Predefined symbols (like @data), which return constant integer values at assembly time. r/m32 x EAX -> EDX:EAX. Table 7-2 shows the default mul-tiplicand and product, depending on the size of the multiplier. LLVM is an SSA based representation that provides type safety, low-level operations, flexibility, and the capability of representing 'all' high-level languages cleanly. asm volatile ("assembly code"); # The asm keyword used to identify the inline assembly code section # may be altered if. the "mul" commad only multiplies a couple of bytes and outputs a 16bit number on r1 and r2. MIPS assembly language simply refers to the assembly language of the MIPS processor. Multiply 8 x 8 bits From Andrew Warren. The carry and overflow flags are set to 0 if AH is 0; otherwise, they are set to 1. The OV flag is set if the product is greater than 255 (0FFh), otherwise it is cleared. The diagrams are sorted fastest-CPU-first as measured by mul_basecase, except that Itanium and POWER7 are at the end. 3 views; Web Traffic. Now, Developer B (DevB) and Developer C (DevC) also need same functionality. Written by Luka Kerr on April 2, 2018 I’ve been learning MIPS assembly for about 2 weeks now at uni and wanted to share how i’ve implemented a simple matrix multiplication function in MIPS. MUL X0, X1, X2 // X0 = X1 * X2. Next Line - MUL NUM1. Multiplying two 16-bit numbers can result in a four-byte result. Multiply, Multiply Accumulate, and Multiply Subtract (32-bit by 32-bit, bottom 32-bit result). The multiply instructions take the following forms: Unsigned Multiplication: mul reg mul mem. Multiplication • Unsigned multiplication: MUL operand • Signed multiplication: IMUL operand • If operand is a Byte - MUL operand; AX AL * operand • If operand is a Word - MUL operand; DX:AX AX * operand • Operand can be a general register or memory. Model this tollbooth with a class called toll Booth. When the device budget does matter, chip designers make trade-offs. txt) or view presentation slides online. Xuan Guo Compiling a C program %gcc -S program. Mostly they do, but sometimes a car goes by without paying. Name ARB_fragment_program Name Strings GL_ARB_fragment_program Contributors Bob Beretta Pat Brown Matt Craighead Cass Everitt Evan Hart Jon Leech Bill Licea-Kane Bimal Poddar Jeremy Sandmel Jon Paul Schelter Avinash Seetharamaiah Nick Triantos and contributors to the ARB_vertex_program working group, the product of which provided the basis for this spec Contact Benj Lipchak, AMD (benj. code getchar proc mov ah, 01h int 21h ret getchar endp newline proc mov dl, 10 mov ah, 02h int 21h ret newline endp main proc mov ax, @data mov ds, ax lea dx, mes mov ah, 09h int 21h call getchar sub al, 48 mov bl, 100 mul bl add input , al call getchar sub al, 48 mov bl, 10 mul bl add input , al. Naturally this would NOT handle signed numbers correctly. I can't figure out how to multiply two numbers (a * b = c) in the Marie Simulator using assembly code and there's an infinite loop with my code. Mul multiplies values in the two registers stores it in A. LC3 Assembly Friday, 20 December 2013 Now create an array of 10 values, starting at location x4000 so that it is “out of reach” of the instructions in your code (which should, as usual, load at address x3000). edu Dan Terpstra Innovative Computing Lab University of Tennessee [email protected] thumb_func optimize: @ Write optimization function in assembly language here MOV R5, INLAMBDA @ R5 holds value of inverse lambda(10) ie to eliminate floating point LDR R6, #2 @ Load R6 with value '2' ie constant of f'(x) MUL R6, R1, R6 @ Multiply R6(2) with R1(a) & store to R6. But those processors didn't have a MUL instruction so when it came to non-power of 2 multiplication, it always involved shifting, testing bit and adding shifted result if bit is set, exactly like we do. Weaver Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Maine vincent. The warp tile must have dimensions that are multiples of matrix multiply-accumulate shapes defined by the nvcuda::wmma templates for the target CUDA Compute Capability. a 32x32b => 64b full multiply (or 64x64b => 128b). program to multiply two numbers in assembly language in urdu , assembly language program to multiply two 8 bit numbers in urdu , assembly program to multiply two numbers in hindi ,. i don't know how to start. Can I exploit SHL or SHR instructions for this target? How can I implement the assembly code? I need. js a1 b1 a2 b2 complex mul. The program would then output the final answer as c. View online or download Arm VERSION 1. The MUL command leaves it results each time in R1:R0 which we then add into our result. If you didn't understand this program, don't worry as you may not be familiar with the strings yet. Multiply two integers without using multiplication, division and bitwise operators, and no loops By making use of recursion, we can multiply two integers with the given constraints. By slightly changing the parameters, the down-shift factors r and s can be made 16, fitting perfectly with this instruction, although the internal accuracy is made slightly worse. Of course, the conversions could be accomplished with addition and subtraction, but in this application the bit-wise logical operators are more natural. __m128 _mm_mul_ps (__m128 a, __m128 b) MULPS xmm, xmm/m128. Software optimization manuals for C++ and assembly code. code mov ax, @data ; Initialize data section mov ds, ax mov ah, 0 mov al, a ; Load number1 in al mov bl, b ; Load number2 in bl mul bl ; multiply numbers and result in ax mov ch, 04h ; Count of digits to be displayed mov cl, 04h ; Count to roll by 4 bits mov bx, ax ; Result in reg bx l2: rol bx, cl ; roll bl so that. 8086 Assembly Program to Multiply Two 16 bit Numbers data ends code segment assume ds:data, cs:code start: mov ax,data mov ds,ax mov ax,a mov bx,b mul bx mov word ptr c,ax mov word ptr c+2,dx int 3 code ends end start Previous Post 8086 Assembly Program to Subtract Two 16 bit Numbers Next Post 8086 Assembly Program for Subtraction of. A global variable by name "globvar" is declared at main in C code is loaded at asm code using the variable address. Although may not be desirable from structural point of view, assembly synthesis is often inevitable since production of an entire prod-uct without decomposition is technically or eco-nomically infeasible. assembly language program for multiplication of two 8 bit numbers in 8085 write an assembly language program (alp) to multiply two 16-bit hexadecimal numbers. Multiply and Divide ! There are 2 classes of multiply - producing 32-bit and 64-bit results ! 32-bit versions on an ARM7TDMI will execute in 2 - 5 cycles ! MUL r0, r1, r2 ; r0 = r1 * r2! MLA r0, r1, r2, r3 ; r0 = (r1 * r2) + r3 ! 64-bit multiply instructions offer both signed and unsigned versions !. 1, 8, 23 Identify the sizes of the sign, exponent , and significand for a Single Precision x86 floating point number. model small. IntALU -> BR : 1 stall • How many unrolls does it take to avoid stalls in the superscalar pipeline? LD. There can be at most one memory operand per instruction. Multiplying two 16-bit numbers can result in a four-byte result. 05/31/2018; 2 minutes to read; In this article. – eg AREA fred,code – You can go back to a previous area by using an old name. MUL performs an unsigned multiplication, while IMUL performs a signed multiplication. After that, it performs: x = (((x - edx) >> 1) + edx) >> 2. These work on the bits of their operators. If the bits of B are b_0, b_1, b_2b_(n-1), so that:. Using shift to multiply is often a great idea on most CPUs. The Tensilica Vision DSP family is available as licensable, synthesizable IP with rich libraries and advanced software tools, allowing you to write your code in C/C++—no assembly code required. Assembly language programming is writing machine instructions in mnemonic form, using an assembler to convert these mnemonics into actual processor instructions and associated data. Accept the numbers from the user. A basic divide or a basic multiply is simple, but instead of wasting time to create both for code space comparison (eg: could multiply by multiplicative inverse in place of divide), working listings should. At the end of the division routine, "Dividend" will contain the remainder of the operation. The mul instruction is used to perform a multiplication. com ; Compile with: nasm -f elf helloworld. , mul is unsigned multiply of A times B, putting the product in D idiv is unsigned division of D divided by X, putting the quotient in X, remainder in D idivs is signed division of D divided by X, putting the quotient in X, remainder in D. We will talk about the result register after this section. Syntax MUL{S}{cond} {Rd}, Rn, Rm where: cond is an optional condition code. Matrix Multiplication In MIPS. The smull and umull instruction can also set the flags if you add the s suffix, but as before, this isn't terribly useful for detecting 32-bit overflow. We use the hardware multiply (MUL) command to create all four cross products and add them to the 32-bit result. mov eax,24924925h mul eax,ecx Result is in edx::eax. Only the div and idiv instructions take longer on the 8086. cond is an optional condition code (see Conditional exec. IMUL INSTRUCTION (SIGNED MULTIPLY) same syntax uses the same operands as the MUL instruction preserves the sign of the product Opcode=IMUL 8. Is doing a bunch of adds still faster than using mul? This suggests that on a Pentium, ADD is about 3 cycles whereas MUL is about 10 cycles. , AND by a mask with the value of 2^n - 1) and using that in combination with ADD/SUB (again, as showed above) or using MUL to divide (multiply by the reciprocal. This is not accounted for in the C language specification. 本资料有dspic33fjmc302hml、dspic33fjmc302hml pdf、dspic33fjmc302hml中文资料、dspic33fjmc302hml引脚图、dspic33fjmc302hml管脚图、dspic33fjmc302hml简介、dspic33fjmc302hml内部结构图和dspic33fjmc302hml引脚功能。. A CPU is a central processing unit, the core of a computer's functionality. Assembly language is a low level language Programmer is the compiler Each mnemonictranslates directly into machine code Good assembly code can provide maximum speed and minimum memory usage Why do we learn machine-level programming? Sometimes code must be written in assembly – register access Assembly is more efficient, if wisely coded. Hi all, How to multiply 8 bit unsigned int with a 16 bit int in Arduino inline assembly? I'm trying to do very basic task of: a*5 (where is a is 16 bit unsigned int) the code is as follow but doesn't work;. What does MUL mean in Assembly? This page is about the meanings of the acronym/abbreviation/shorthand MUL in the Computing field in general and in the Assembly terminology in particular. LD MUL moved up the DADDUIs. An experimental technique, coupling photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) with electrospray. Russian peasant multiplication is actually a quick way to convert two numbers to binary form, multiply them together, and convert back to our number system. Assembly Language - Division. This is the function in C that will be implemented. The multiply instructions take the following forms: Unsigned Multiplication: mul reg mul mem. A program consists of a sequence of assembly language statements. 2 Pdf User Manuals. Arithmetic and Logical Operations Chapter Nine There is a lot more to assembly language than knowing the operations of a handful of machine instructions. Without MUL the normal approach is "SHIFT LEFT and TEST and ADD" in a loop, like this:. The ARM Cortex-M family are ARM microprocessor cores which are designed for use in microcontrollers, ASICs, ASSPs, FPGAs, and SoCs. Your solution for each part should only have two or less instructions. All references in this video came from: Assembly Language for x86 Processors (6th Edition) http://goo. Instruction mnemonics, like MOV, ADD, and MUL 2. mul Rdest, Rsrc1, Src2 Multiply (without overflow) mulo Rdest, Rsrc1, Src2 Multiply (with overflow) MIPS Assembly Instructions Page 3 of 3 automatic alignment of. An assembly language is a programming language that can be used to directly tell the computer what to do. Multiplying numbers in assembly If this is your first visit, be sure to check out the FAQ by clicking the link above. With the D Programming Language , write fast, read fast, and run fast. So add is faster than multiply. 8086 Assembly: Multiply two 16 bit numbers to yield a 32 bit result without using the mul instruction 0 x86 Assembly Language: Shift multiplication with 64 bit answer. Even to perform the simplest things, like reading in or printing out a decimal number requires a surprisingly large number of mathematical operators. BLOCK variables). ; BX, DX are general purpose registers where BX is used for multiplication and DX is used for result. Program: MOV AX, 2050 MOV BX, 2052 MUL BX MOV 2054, AX MOV AX, DX MOV 2056, AX HLT Observation:. text global _start _start: mov edx, 13 ; number of bytes to write - one for each. Multiply and Divide ! There are 2 classes of multiply - producing 32-bit and 64-bit results ! 32-bit versions on an ARM7TDMI will execute in 2 - 5 cycles ! MUL r0, r1, r2 ; r0 = r1 * r2! MLA r0, r1, r2, r3 ; r0 = (r1 * r2) + r3 ! 64-bit multiply instructions offer both signed and unsigned versions !. 008 20 * Multiply 009 - 01045 0 rcl 0Register 0 to stack 011 1 1 Enter 1 012 1 1 Make it 11 013 30 - Subtract 014 10 / Divide 015 - 01643 32 g RtnReturn to calculator mode [Paul99] •Calculator mode –codes (m/clang. You will be asked to translate these C code routines into MIPS. In the disassembly view the assembly instructions corresponding to the selected source line are highlighted. In Xeon CPU, for the scalar multiplication operation, I have the mulq assembly instruction. MUL_Y MUL_X MUL_DL MUL_DH. Register File. Instruction MUL is used to multiply two numbers in the following permutations above. Assembly synthesis refers to a pro-cess of decomposing an overall product into mul-tiple components. An experimental technique, coupling photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) with electrospray. The UNC miniMIPS assembler also provides special support for simulation. One ADD instruction might store 16 bits of results in the A register and the D register, while another instruction might just store the 8 low bits in the A register, ignore the D. Without using the MUL instruction, give instructions that multiply register r4 by : a) 135 b) 255 c) 18 d) 16,384 and place your result in register r0. Theory: Mnemonics used: MUL, LDR,STR,BX: write explanation for these mnemonics /*A main code calls the assembly code. So if we keep in memory a table of x 2 /4 we can do a multiply with an add, two subtractions and two table lookups. The program assumes that the user enters all alphabetic characters without making mistakes. Written by Luka Kerr on April 2, 2018 I've been learning MIPS assembly for about 2 weeks now at uni and wanted to share how i've implemented a simple matrix multiplication function in MIPS. MUL EXAMPLES Mov al, 5h Mov bl, 10h Mul bl ; AX = 0050h, CF = 0 No overflow - the Carry flag is 0 because the upper half of AX is zero 7. MUL performs unsigned multiplication. Here we are taking the numbers from memory and after that performing the multiplication operation. Important: The objectives of this assignment are to (1) implement mul-tiplication by a constant without a multiply instruction, and (2) imple-ment division by a constant without a divide instruction. Unit definition, a single thing or person. In the event that you investigate the planning for the duplicate direction, you'll see that the execution time for this View the full answer. req r8 jksum. The syntax for the MUL/IMUL instructions is as follows − MUL/IMUL multiplier. Perform an 8-bit signed multiply of the AL register and the contents of the effective address (addressed by the ESI register plus an offset of 1): imulb 1(%esi) Perform a 16-bit signed multiply of the constant, -126, and the contents of the effective address (addressed by the EDI register plus an offset of 4). Lance Leventhal's 6502 Assembly Language Subroutines includes, on page 236, a 16-bit multiply routine that does this. Looking through the lists of instructions, it becomes clear that multiplication and division operations are not provided in SPARC: at least not in a form that most programmers are familiar with. My teacher just decided one day at the end of this semester to give us a programming assignment in assembly language and has barely taught us anything. 16, 32 and 64 bit systems. The multiply and divide operations are slightly different from other operations. Cube trick faster than calculator by Ashutosh Sir Part 2. MIPS assembly language simply refers to the assembly language of the MIPS processor. REG stands for Registers (Eg. Once this process is completed , all traces of C programing are erased. text global _start ;must be declared for using gcc _start: ;tell linker entry point mov eax, SYS. cs 61C L10 Start. At the end of the division routine, "Dividend" will contain the remainder of the operation. Instruction mnemonics, like MOV, ADD, and MUL 2. Note that labels are a low-level feature and it is possible to write efficient assembly without labels, just using assembly functions, loops, if and switch instructions (see below). ; Exits with product in PRODHI:PRODLO. ARMv8 Instruction Set Overview form by any means without the express prior written permission of ARM. Realtime Math 2. Long Multiplication. An Ultimate, In-depth Explanation of How EVM Works. A global variable by name "globvar" is declared at main in C code is loaded at asm code using the variable address. 286 added an imul dest(reg), src(reg/mem), immediate form, and 386 added an imul r32, r/m32 form, both of which which only compute the lower half of the result. Multiplied definition, to make many or manifold; increase the number, quantity, etc. The Unified Assembly Language (UAL) format enables the same canonical syntax to be used for both ARM and Thumb instruction sets. Predefined symbols (like @data), which return constant integer values at assembly time. As you typically have 32-bit input values for division, you often need to use CDQ to sign-extend EAX into EDX just before the division. Also, I don't understand why I should multiply by 16 at the end, when I could multiply the volume by 256 at the beginning instead of multiplying it by 16, and get the same (wrong) result. any bot can apply a few image manipulation function to get the letters into matchable shapes. extern printf. The structure (methods omitted) looks something like this: class uint128_t {public: unsigned long int dw3, dw2, dw1, dw0; // Multiplication is currently being performed using the typical long-multipication method (in the assembly so that I can catch the EDX output), ignoring the words coming out of (i. 8086 Assembly: Multiply two 16 bit numbers to yield a 32 bit result without using the mul instruction 0 x86 Assembly Language: Shift multiplication with 64 bit answer. The MUL/IMUL Instruction. I went nuts over-commenting. There can be at most one immediate operand per instruction. You don't call functions in assembly language, you execute machine instructions. There is no need to create a long depency-chain for shifts by a single bits. The MUL instruction sets the Carry flag if the upper half of the product is not equal to zero. Insertion sequences (ISs) constitute an important component of most bacterial genomes. shr eax,3 happens in a single cycle and can be paired with 3 other instructions for a 1/4 of a cycle cost. In Xeon CPU, for the scalar multiplication operation, I have the mulq assembly instruction. ALP to multiply two 16 bit binary numbers. In Listing 12. Our online multiple choice questions trivia quizzes can be adapted to suit your requirements for taking some of the top multiple choice questions quizzes. ALP to multipy numbersWITHOUT MUL instruction Q: Write a ALP to multiply two 8 bit numbers using Shift-Add Method and Repeated Addition Method. Otherwise, mul[a;b;a] goes to in nity or 0 depending on the value of B. Using only True mips instructions. The mul instruction is used to perform a multiplication. It takes in 6 parameters: n: number of rows in A; m: number of. There are two instructions for multiplying binary data. mul clears the overflow and carry flags under the following conditions: Table 2-6 Clearing OF and CF Flags. Attributes (BYTE, WORD) 5. \$\begingroup\$ @immibis: Before Haswell, Intel CPUs had 1 SIMD FP add unit (3 cycle latency), and 1 SIMD FP mul unit (5 cycle latency). This label is called "main" push {r0-r1,lr} This pushes registers r0, r1, and the link register into the stack. This free hex calculator can add, subtract, multiply, and divide hexadecimal values, as well as convert between hexadecimal and decimal values. Software optimization manuals for C++ and assembly code. Is doing a bunch of adds still faster than using mul? This suggests that on a Pentium, ADD is about 3 cycles whereas MUL is about 10 cycles. The mul 64 full multiplication command is 2 mops on Intel processors, but with a delay of only 3 cycles, as in imul r64,r64, which gives only a 64-bit result. Using only True mips instructions. Then replace each multiply and. asm; Hello World Program - asmtutor. (with and without using MUL instruction) 4. By Peter Hemsley. MUL – Multiply. Multiplication • Unsigned multiplication: MUL operand • Signed multiplication: IMUL operand • If operand is a Byte - MUL operand; AX AL * operand • If operand is a Word - MUL operand; DX:AX AX * operand • Operand can be a general register or memory. Assembly code. a new drip system, the impeller can often be trimmed to reduce the pressure (preferable) or alternatively the water pressure can be controlled with pressure reduction valves. The 8 data bytes are stored from memory location E000H to E007H. El-Maleh Computer Engineering Department Outline Why Assembly Language Programming Organization of 8086 processor Assembly Language Syntax Data – A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow. Let us say we want to multiply. We use the hardware multiply (MUL) command to create all four cross products and add them to the 32-bit result. main should read in the two values and pass them as parameters to. The tight loop uses add/sub/shift on int32_t so I could easily convert it with intrinsics. The instruction set, memory system, and data types have all been optimized for high-throughput 8-, 16-, and 32-bit pixel processing. The UNC miniMIPS assembler also provides special support for simulation. Figure P2 assumes that these experienced programmers are novices to the Internet, and so, recommends they read chapter 5 to introduce the basic techniques for. The AREA directive marks the beginning of a new block. java file, it outputs all of the control statement's predicates of the input Java program as variables and outputs the same. SMUAD{X} and SMUSD{X} Dual 16-bit Signed Multiply with Addition or Subtraction of. Since I speak C and assembly Ill expand it to include assembly for the Xeon. This is a small project, a first step, for a data collection project I am trying to accomplish. Effectively it's like a*b>>16 without overflow problems. Having the multiplication SSE'd could help gain some more performance (I leave. The output is stored in the registers. + Tutorial1 Logic based Tutorial2 Math based Novel Methods of Integer Multiplication and Division; Multiplication and/or Division by a Constant (8 bits * 256) / 8 bits by Nikolai Golovchenko. Syntax MUL { cond }{S} Rd , Rm , Rs MLA { cond }{S} Rd , Rm , Rs , Rn where: cond is an optional condition code (see Conditional execution ). It takes in 6 parameters: n: number of rows in A; m: number of. There is no need to create a long depency-chain for shifts by a single bits. Write 8086 ALP to. So MUL is faster if you need to multiply by more than about 3 or 4. MPY8X8: CLRF PRODHI CLRF COUNT BSF COUNT,3 RRF PRODLO,F LOOP: SKPNC ADDWF PRODHI,F RRF PRODHI,F RRF PRODLO,F DECFSZ COUNT GOTO LOOP. Multiply content of register BX with the content of register AX. Only the div and idiv instructions take longer on the 8086. View Notes - assembly notes from CSE 2240 at Southern Methodist University. multiply two numbers without using arithmetic operator Python program to find product of two numbers Using for loop - Program 1. multiplying two numbers in assembly without using mul instruction. Multiply two 1 byte long unsigned integers, divide two 2 byte long unsigned integers, then store the answers in memory. You don't call functions in assembly language, you execute machine instructions. mov r0,#13. It takes in 6 parameters: n: number of rows in A; m: number of. Finally, the last statement moves the value of register c4 to register oD0. Complex instructions targeted to a particular application domain can provide high performance and energy efficiency. ) Comment field: used to explain the function or operation of one or more instructions Comment forms;[Text] //this is a comment line /* this is also a comment and may span multiple lines */ Adcr10,r11 ; adding r10 and r11 with carry //following instruction does subtraction without carry. Learn more about the use of hex, or explore hundreds of other calculators addressing math, finance, health, and fitness, and more. data a db 09H b db 02H. req r5 @ we use icount for a, jcount for b and kcount for c kcount. The MUL instruction sets the Carry flag if the upper half of the product is not equal to zero. Multiplying two 16-bit numbers can result in a four-byte result. Leave the low-order word of the product in register lo and the high-word in register hi. All references in this video came from: Assembly Language for x86 Processors (6th Edition) http://goo. asm ; Link with (64 bit systems require elf_i386 option): ld -m elf_i386 helloworld. a good way to think about this is photoshop. This is a small project, a first step, for a data collection project I am trying to accomplish. Perform a 32-bit signed multiply of the constant, 12345678, and the contents of the effective address (addressed by the EDI register plus an offset of 4). ARM processors before Cortex A15 has decoupled FPU, so fp<->int transfers cause huge stalls to serialize pipelines. Programming Tip: In fact, any multiplication results in an answer which is the sum of the bits in the two multiplicands. Naturally this would NOT handle signed numbers correctly. For example for D = 10, if we can safely assume that N is smaller than M = 2^32 / 10 + 1 = 1999999Ah, we can just multiply by it and take the high 32 bits as a result. Unlike addition and subtraction, you need separate instructions for these two operations. Write a program in assembly language to multiply matrices of 3x3 [Updated] Saturday, 14 June 2014 Tags: Multiplication is assembly language, multiplication of matrices in assembly language,. However, print the contents of both HI and LO on the console. The assembly language for more advanced chips subsumes the simplest 8086/ 8088 assembly language. Instruction MUL is used to multiply two numbers in the following permutations above. A good resource for those new to ARM assembly. FPMUL -> any: 5 stalls. PENGERTIAN BAHASA ASSEMBLY Bahasa pemrograman generasi kedua adalah bahasa assembly. a) Write an MC68000 subroutine MUL_SUB and a macro MUL_MAC that implement unsigned multiplication of two 16 bit numbers without using the mulu or muls instruction (for example, use multiple additions to implement multiplication). Generic_Real_Arrays and Ada. Then we are performing multiplication on the matrices entered by the user. Without such an. Let’s take an example. It is a way to multiply numbers larger than 10 that only needs your knowledge of the ten times Multiplication Table. The MUL instruction sets the Carry flag if the upper half of the product is not equal to zero. Related Articles and Code: Write a shell program to add, subtract and multiply the 2 given numbers passed as command line arguments; Shell Script to find out the sum of the given numbers using command line argument. All affecting the Overflow and Carry flags. ; HLT is used to stop the program. I can't figure out how to multiply two numbers (a * b = c) in the Marie Simulator using assembly code and there's an infinite loop with my code. The plan for today is pretty standard: I will describe geometry first, the vertex and the pixel shaders later. You've got to know how to use them and what they can do. print operation is not a terminator; it should take an operand; and it shouldn’t return any values. syntax unified. Theory: Mnemonics used: MUL, LDR,STR,BX: write explanation for these mnemonics /*A main code calls the assembly code. Performs an unsigned multiplication of two operands. Multiplication • Unsigned multiplication: MUL operand • Signed multiplication: IMUL operand • If operand is a Byte - MUL operand; AX AL * operand • If operand is a Word - MUL operand; DX:AX AX * operand • Operand can be a general register or memory. model small. Online Retail store for Development Boards, DIY Projects, Trainer Kits,Lab equipment's,Electronic components,Sensors and provides online resources like Free Source Code, Free Projects, Free Downloads. Since I speak C and assembly Ill expand it to include assembly for the Xeon. The mul instruction is used to perform a multiplication. In this, we use nested for loops to iterate each row and each column. SYS_EXIT equ 1 SYS_READ equ 3 SYS_WRITE equ 4 STDIN equ 0 STDOUT equ 1 segment. It is the common code representation used throughout all phases of the LLVM compilation strategy. [email protected] Accept the numbers from the user. Matrix multiplication in C++. This guide describes the basics of 32-bit x86 assembly language programming, covering a small but useful subset of the available instructions and assembler directives. equ limit,1000. AVR® RISC Microcontroller family that includes, among other new enhancements, a hardware multiplier. The three for-mats accept register and memory operands, but not immediate operands: MUL reg/mem8 MUL reg/mem16 MUL reg/mem32 The single operand in the MUL instruction is the multiplier. r/m8 x AL -> AX. model small. MUL instruction can use 1 byte 2 byte or 4 byte register/memloc multiplying 1 byte MUL CL ; put into AX = CL * AL goes into. Probably the most important thing to understand while reading this is that on the 6502 the ROR (rotate right) instruction shifts the lowest-order bit into the carry flag, and the carry flag into the highest order bit. the lowest bit is 0), it replaces that 0 with a 1 and returns the result. IntALU -> BR : 1 stall • How many unrolls does it take to avoid stalls in the superscalar pipeline? LD. ARM programmer model. Published: 13/03/2020-15:25. Integer overflow Score: 3. For example, in C a = a + (a << 1) will (ignoring overflow etc. A good resource for those new to ARM assembly. How to perform addition,subtraction,multiplication,division in assembly language 8086,x86 and assembly language code. The device budget on desktop chips is huge, so the space needed for multiply does not matter. Also x86 has a barrel shifter. We use the hardware multiply (MUL) command to create all four cross products and add them to the 32-bit result. The MUL instruction multiplies the unsigned 8-bit integer in the accumulator and the unsigned 8-bit integer in the B register producing a 16-bit product. out [use this for c) and d) ] Write an assembly language line, note the machine address. Mul multiplies values in the two registers stores it in A. There are many other ways to multiply two numbers (For example, see this). MUL/IMUL, syntax: mul value mul dest, value, value mul dest, value mul/imul (unsigned/signed) multiply either eax with a value, or they multiply two values and put them into a destination register or they multiply a register with a value. mul d,s,t # multiply $s. Historical note: Prior to ARMv4 specifying the same register for Rd and Rm had potentially unpredictable results. IMUL INSTRUCTION (SIGNED MULTIPLY) same syntax uses the same operands as the MUL instruction preserves the sign of the product Opcode=IMUL 8. The Unified Assembly Language (UAL) format enables the same canonical syntax to be used for both ARM and Thumb instruction sets. square_unsigned: mul r0,r0,r0 mov pc,lr Your examples use soft-float-abi then floating point data transfered in integer registers. The result is stored in register AX, register pair DX:AX, or register pair EDX:EAX (depending on the operand size), with the high-order bits of the product contained in register AH, DX, or EDX, respectively. The product of 6 times 2 is 12. command mul operand. The MUL instruction sets the Carry flag if the upper half of the product is not equal to zero. multiply two numbers without using arithmetic operator Python program to find product of two numbers Using for loop - Program 1. It is a combinational circuit that performs multiplication operation for mul and mla instructions. extern scanf. ) In crypto/ec/asm/ecp_nistz256-x86_64. If you didn't understand this program, don't worry as you may not be familiar with the strings yet. Division tricks by Ashutosh Sir. Let’s say, Developer A (DevA) creates a Math class that provides functionality to add, multiply, square root, and other math functions. · The multiplication of two 8 bit numbers may result into a 16 bit number. Joined: May 3, 2012 Messages: 1 Likes Received: 0 Trophy Points: 0. Any assembly program using a program header corresponding to this or any subsequent extension (e. Now Load the data from AX to memory. MUL_Y MUL_X MUL_DL MUL_DH. MUL – Multiply. UMULL, UMLAL, SMULL and SMLAL Unsigned and signed long multiply and multiply accumulate (32-bit by 32-bit, 64-bit result or 64-bit. The one we will use in CS421 is the GNU Assembler (gas) assembler. this whole game of assembly is passing values to the free register and right register where eax is accumulator" mov 3 to eax and mov 4 to ebx and use mul ebx to put 12 in eax. I went nuts over-commenting. You can click on the up and down arrow buttons displayed at the right of the disassembly column header to navigate to the next or previous instruction block. Using a loop we can display it a number of times. txt) or view presentation slides online. Reference Link: mul is used for unsigned multiplication whereas imul is used for signed multiplication. In MIPS, we multiply registers, so: " 32-bit value x 32-bit value = 64-bit value ! Syntax of Multiplication (signed): " mult register1, register2 " Multiplies 32-bit values in those registers & puts 64-bit product in special result regs: ! puts product upper half in hi, lower half in lo.
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